The history of HTC

1913

Bergius: Pioneered work with the goal to understand, and where applicable, to make technically usable the naturally occurring coal formation process from biomass (carbonisation).

 

1920/30

Berl, Schmidt, Fischer et al.: Detailed studies on the simulated carbonisation with the inclusion of relevant model compounds such as cellulose and lignin.

 

1950–1959

Kreulen and Kreulen van Selms demonstrated by means of detailed study with model compounds that there is always a multitude of complex reactions taking place simultaneously during the carbonisation of the complex natural products.

 

1960–1969

Schumacher, Huntjens, van Krevelen: Similar experiments fundamentally verified previous findings; however, detailed models of the reactions and mechanisms still remained unclear.

 

2001/04

Wang et al., Sun, Li: Nano particles (spheres, tubes, etc.) are manufactured per HTC from biomass and can even be equipped with functional surfaces. Hence, tight constraints regarding desired characteristics can be adhered to, allowing SunCoal® to be partially tailor-made.

 

2004

Yu, Cui, Li, Li, Yu, Antonietti, Cölfen: HTC

 

2006

Titirici, Antonietti et al.: Synthesis of carbon nano tubes, metal-catalysts, and coal for CO2 storage presented in „Zauberkohle aus dem Dampfkochtopf“ ("Magic Coal from a pressure cooker").